Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2016-07-15
Single-Fraction Versus Multifraction (3 × 9 Gy) Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Large (>2 cm) Brain Metastases: A Comparative Analysis of Local Control and Risk of Radiation-Induced Brain Necrosis.   
To investigate the local control and radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with brain metastases >2 cm in size who received single-fraction or multifraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS); factors associated with clinical outcomes and the development of brain radionecrosis were assessed.
Two hundred eighty-nine consecutive patients with brain metastases >2.0 cm who received SRS as primary treatment at Sant'Andrea Hospital, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy, were analyzed. Cumulative incidence analysis was used to compare local control and radiation-induced brain necrosis between groups from the time of SRS. To achieve a balanced distribution of baseline covariates between treatment groups, a propensity score analysis was used.
The 1-year cumulative local control rates were 77% in the single-fraction SRS (SF-SRS) group and 91% in the multifraction SRS (MF-SRS) group (P=.01). Recurrences occurred in 25 and 11 patients who received SF-SRS or MF-SRS (P=.03), respectively. Thirty-one patients (20%) undergoing SF-SRS and 11 (8%) subjected to MF-SRS experienced brain radionecrosis (P=.004); the 1-year cumulative incidence rate of radionecrosis was 18% and 9% (P=.01), respectively. Significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of local control and risk of radionecrosis were maintained after propensity score adjustment.
Multifraction SRS at a dose of 27 Gy in 3 daily fractions seems to be an effective treatment modality for large brain metastases, associated with better local control and a reduced risk of radiation-induced radionecrosis as compared with SF-SRS.

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