International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 2018-09-01
Dose Effect in Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Resected Keloids.   
Surgical excision of keloids can result in an insidious cycle of tissue injury and repeat keloid formation unless combined with adjuvant therapy to halt this cycle. We present our results of postoperative radiation therapy for keloids with various dose regimens.
A retrospective review of 124 patients with 250 keloid lesions treated with postoperative radiation therapy was analyzed. In this institutional review board-approved study, 125 keloids were treated to 20 Gy in 5 fractions and 125 keloids were treated to 12 to 16 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions. Local failure was defined as redevelopment of any clinically apparent keloid at the treated site. The median age was 34 years (14-84 years). Keloids were located on the ear (34%), neck/shoulder (19%), abdomen (13%), chest (10%), face (9%), breast (7%), extremities (4%), and back (3%). Median keloid size was 4 cm (0.5-20 cm).
At a median follow-up of 40 months, the recurrence rate for all lesions was 5.6%. Lesions treated to 20 Gy had a recurrence rate of 1.6% compared with 9.6% with <20 Gy and an odds ratio of 0.16 (P = .02). Upon univariate and multivariate analysis there were no differences in recurrence rate with respect to location, race, gender, age, previously treated lesions, and presence of multiple keloids. The lone predictor for improved control rate was the dose of 20 Gy in 5 fractions compared with less than that. Control rate for lesions treated to a biologically equivalent dose of 35 to 36 Gy, 48 to 52.5 Gy, and 60 to 72 Gy were 10% (P = .007), 8.9% (P = .16), and 1.6% (P = .02), respectively.
Surgical excision followed by immediate adjuvant radiation therapy for keloids provides excellent local control and cosmesis. Treatment with a biologically equivalent dose > 60 (20 Gy in 5 fractions) yielded superior local control over lower dose regimens.

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