Blood 2015 Sep 17
How I treat posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.   
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potentially fatal disorder arising after solid organ transplant (SOT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Iatrogenically impaired immune surveillance and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection/reactivation are key factors in the pathogenesis. However, current knowledge on all aspects of PTLD is limited due to its rarity, morphologic heterogeneity, and the lack of prospective trials. Furthermore, the broad spectrum of underlying immune disorders and the type of graft represent important confounding factors. Despite these limitations, several reviews have been written aimed at offering a guide for pathologists and clinicians in diagnosing and treating PTLD. Rather than providing another classical review on PTLD, this "How I Treat" article, based on 2 case reports, focuses on specific challenges, different perspectives, and novel insights regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of PTLD. These challenges include the wide variety of PTLD presentation (making treatment optimization difficult), the impact of EBV on pathogenesis and clinical behavior, and the controversial treatment of Burkitt lymphoma (BL)-PTLD.

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