Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2017-06-20
Hypofractionated Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective: First Results From a Prospective Phase II Trial.   
Purpose Conventionally fractionated postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) takes approximately 5 to 6 weeks. Data supporting hypofractionated PMRT is limited. We prospectively evaluated a short course of hypofractionated PMRT, in which therapy was completed in 15 treatment days. Patients and Methods We delivered PMRT at a dose of 36.63 Gy in 11 fractions of 3.33 Gy over 11 days to the chest wall and the draining regional lymph nodes, followed by an optional mastectomy scar boost of four fractions of 3.33 Gy. Our primary end point was freedom from any grade 3 or higher toxicities. We incorporated early stopping criteria on the basis of predefined toxicity thresholds. Results We enrolled 69 women with stage II to IIIa breast cancer, of whom 67 were eligible for analysis. After a median follow-up of 32 months, there were no grade 3 toxicities. There were 29 reported grade 2 toxicities, with grade 2 skin toxicities being the most frequent (16 of 67; 24%). There were two patients with isolated ipsilateral chest wall tumor recurrences (2 of 67; crude rate, 3%). Three-year estimated local recurrence-free survival was 89.2% (95% CI, 0.748 to 0.956). The 3-year estimated distant recurrence-free survival was 90.3% (95% CI, 0.797 to 0.956). Forty-one patients had chest wall reconstructions; three had expanders removed for infection before radiation therapy. The total rate of implant loss or failure was 24% (9 of 38), and the unplanned surgical correction rate was 8% (3 of 38), for a total complication rate of 32%. Conclusion To our knowledge, our phase II prospective study offers one of the shortest courses of PMRT reported, delivered in 11 fractions to the chest wall and nodes and 15 fractions inclusive of a boost. We demonstrated low toxicity and high local control with this schedule. On the basis of our data, we have designed a cooperative group phase III prospective, randomized trial of conventional versus hypofractionated PMRT that will activate soon.

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