Seminars in radiation oncology 2019-04
Management of Nodal Disease in Advanced Cervical Cancer.   
During the last decade the adoption of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy has dramatically improved local control in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy; however, nodal failure remains an obstacle. Metastatic lymph nodes can be detected by surgical and imaging approaches with different sensitivities and specificities, that improve the definition of relevant targets for macroscopic and microscopic nodal disease, and that influence our understanding of dose levels of external beam radiotherapy. Systematic use of modern radiotherapy techniques including intensity modulated radiotherapy and simultaneously integrated nodal boosts in combination with daily position verification is emerging as increasingly important for obtaining nodal control in LACC. This review summarizes published and ongoing efforts for optimizing nodal disease treatment in LACC, elaborates the state of the art approach for nodal disease detection, radiotherapy planning and delivery, and discusses future investigational efforts needed for precise optimization.

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