Neurol Sci 2021 Sep 16
Paraproteinemia and neuropathy.   
Paraproteinemia is associated with different peripheral neuropathies. The major causes of neuropathy correlated with paraproteinemia are the deposition of immunoglobulin in the myelin, represented by anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy; deposition of immunoglobulin or its fragment in the interstitium, represented by immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis); and paraneoplastic mechanisms that cannot be solely attributed to the deposition of immunoglobulin or its fragment, represented by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin change (POEMS) syndrome. Patients with anti-MAG neuropathy and POEMS syndrome present with slowing of nerve conduction parameters. This characteristic fulfills the electrodiagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) defined by the European Academy of Neurology and Peripheral Nerve Society (EAN/PNS). Although direct damage caused by the deposition of amyloid can induce axonal damage in AL amyloidosis, some patients with this condition have features fulfilling the EAN/PNS electrodiagnostic criteria for CIDP. Conventional immunotherapies for CIDP, such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange, offer no or only minimal-to-modest benefit. Although rituximab can reduce the level of circulating autoantibodies, it may only be effective in some patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. Drugs including melphalan, thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib for POEMS syndrome and those including melphalan, thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide, bortezomib, ixazomib, and daratumumab for AL amyloidosis are considered. Since there will be more therapeutic options in the future, thereby enabling appropriate treatments for individual neuropathies, there is an increasing need for early diagnosis.

Related Questions

Can you expand on this by sharing exactly what this routine workup should include? What additional tests outside of evaluating for POEMS and amyloidos...