Pract Radiat Oncol 2020 Aug 10
Repeated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.   
In clinical practice, whether cirrhotic livers in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can withstand repeated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes and toxicities in these patients.
This retrospective study included patients with HCC who were treated with SBRT at least twice between January 2012 and June 2019. Local control and overall survival rates were calculated. Liver function before and after irradiation was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and modified albumin-bilirubin grade. All toxicities were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.0).
Fifty-two patients underwent 136 courses (148 lesions) of SBRT, which was mostly performed for out-of-field tumors but 3 in-field recurrences. The median follow-up duration from the first SBRT was 52.6 months (range, 15.7-89.3 months). The median gross tumor volume was 4.6 cm (range, 0.8-55.2 cm) at the second SBRT. The 3-year local control rate was 94.5% (95% confidence interval, 88.0%-97.5%). The 3-year overall survival rate after the second course was 62.8% (95% confidence interval, 45.1%-76.2%). Although the Child-Pugh score did not deteriorate after the second course, deterioration of the modified albumin-bilirubin grade at 6, 12, and 24 months was statistically significant compared with that before the second course. One patient (1.9%) experienced grade 3 hypoalbuminemia and 2 patients (3.8%) had grade 3 thrombocytopenia 6 months after the second course. Mild fatigue and nausea were reported in 9 (17.3%) and 6 (11.5%) patients, respectively. One instance of grade 5 toxicity was observed. Two patients (1.5%) had grade 2 gastric ulcers. No other grade ≥3 gastrointestinal toxicities occurred.
Repeated SBRT is feasible and produces minimal toxicity in patients with HCC and Child-Pugh scores of ≤7 and a low normal liver dose.

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