Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2010-06-01
Selective nodal irradiation on basis of (18)FDG-PET scans in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer: a prospective study.   
To evaluate the results of selective nodal irradiation on basis of (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans in patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC) on isolated nodal failure.
A prospective study was performed of 60 patients with LD-SCLC. Radiotherapy was given to a dose of 45 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy, concurrent with carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy. Only the primary tumor and the mediastinal lymph nodes involved on the pretreatment PET scan were irradiated. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan was performed 3 months after radiotherapy completion and every 6 months thereafter.
A difference was seen in the involved nodal stations between the pretreatment (18)F-deoxyglucose PET scans and computed tomography scans in 30% of patients (95% confidence interval, 20-43%). Of the 60 patients, 39 (65%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52-76%) developed a recurrence; 2 patients (3%, 95% CI, 1-11%) experienced isolated regional failure. The median actuarial overall survival was 19 months (95% CI, 17-21). The median actuarial progression-free survival was 14 months (95% CI, 12-16). 12% (95% CI, 6-22%) of patients experienced acute Grade 3 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) esophagitis.
PET-based selective nodal irradiation for LD-SCLC resulted in a low rate of isolated nodal failures (3%), with a low percentage of acute esophagitis. These findings are in contrast to those from our prospective study of CT-based selective nodal irradiation, which resulted in an unexpectedly high percentage of isolated nodal failures (11%). Because of the low rate of isolated nodal failures and toxicity, we believe that our data support the use of PET-based SNI for LD-SCLC.

Related Questions

The patient underwent lobectomy and nodal staging for a presumed non-small cell lung cancer.

If a patient clearly has N1 disease with high SUV on PET, do you routinely recommend EBUS or mediastinoscopy to evaluate for N2 disease?