Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2015 Aug 01
Surgical Technique and Clinically Relevant Resection Cavity Dynamics Following Implantation of Cesium-131 (Cs-131) Brachytherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases.   
Cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy is used to reduce local recurrence of resected brain metastases. In order to ensure dose homogeneity and reduce risk of radiation necrosis, inter-seed distance and cavity volume must remain stable during delivery.
To investigate the efficacy of the "seeds-on-a-string" technique with intracavitary fibrin glue in achieving cavity volume stability.
We placed intra-operative Cs-131 brachytherapy in 30 cavities post-resection of brain metastases. Seeds-on-a-string were placed like barrel staves within the cavity with fibrin glue. Serial MRI imaging occurred post-operatively. Pre-operative tumor volumes were compared with post-operative cavity volumes to evaluate volume stability. Thirty patients who underwent post-resective stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) were used as a control group for volumetric comparison.
Cs-131 and SRS patients exhibited consistent cavity shrinkage over the median 110-day follow-up (p<.001), with total median shrinkage of 56.5% (Cs-131) and 84.8% (SRS). During the first month when ~88% of Cs-131 dosage is delivered, however, there was non-significant volume decrease in the Cs-131 group (median 22.0%; p=.063), while SRS patients showed significantly more shrinkage (46.7%; p=.042). No events of radiation necrosis occurred in either group.
Cs-131 patients exhibited significantly less cavity shrinkage than SRS patients during the first critical month with 88% Cs-131 dose delivery. This significant difference in shrinkage suggests that the intracavitary seeds-on-a-string technique facilitates increased cavity stability, promoting more homogenous dose delivery.

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