Radiation Oncology

Gynecologic Cancers   

Questions discussed in this category



This patient previously received hysterectomy with adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy without pelvic RT. Colonoscopy demonstrated invasive disease, b...

If a patient presents with metastatic disease (by virtue of extensive PA nodal burden, mediastinal/SCV involvement, no solid organs) but received urge...

Have you found Trendelenburg positioning helpful for situations in which small bowel falls into a high dose target volume?

Would you delay salvage surgery for a stage I primary vaginal cancer with partial response but no new disease at 3 months after radiation (EBRT + brac...

If a weekly schedule is chosen, what would be the appropriate weekly dose given that PORTEC-3 and GOG 258 used two cycles of cisplatin 50 mg/m2?

Is there any particular reason to include or not include this in the treatment volumes?

The patient has no risk factors and would have been stage IB if it were not for the small nodule

Is this a clinical/radiographic or strictly pathologic diagnosis? Specifically, what is considered the superior/top border of LUS?

After a diversion, would any other factors impact your recommendation (residual disease/response to chemoradiation, performance status)? Although brac...

Does stage of the cervical cancer influence your decision? Does the amount of SUV uptake influence your decision? When does one biopsy? How long can o...

Is there a specific brand or formulation you prefer? The literature supporting the use of probiotics does not standardize the type or dose of probiot...

At our institution we often give 5.5 Gy x 4 fractions. There really does not appear to be a general consensus regarding timing. Interested in what oth...

Do you increase EBRT or brachy dose by a certain amount based on interval? 

If so, what dose would you recommend? What other management options would you consider? 

Treat as invasive disease with concurrent chemotherapy? Any non-radiation options for large in-situ disease? If RT, would you include at least inguina...

What is the impact among patients and providers? Has your documentation been adjusted now that patients can readily review?

Ideally, treatment should be completed in 56 days (preferably < 50 days). If there has been a significant delay to brachytherapy (>2-3 months) d...

Do you recommend upfront diversion? Are there unique planning considerations such as the inability to use bladder filling? How do you boost? What are ...

VC brachy, pelvic RT, +/- chemo?  Does your management change if it is confined to the endometrium without myometrium invasion or if it is only ...

If the patient had high risk features (for example age 60+ and LVI) do you treat with vaginal brachytherapy or WPRT? If you treat with whole pelvis ra...

Apart from H&N SCC, are there times where adding an extra dose of radiation due to a tx break is appropriate?  Is there a decent equatio...

If the tumor was excised but there is infiltration and encasement of the sciatic nerve, would you offer radiation? If numerous lines of chemotherapy h...

Do you try to keep Hb> 10 or 12? Or somewhere in between? 

EBRT vs VB? She technically meets PORTEC2, but also meets GOG99 and GOG249 (for pelvic RT) and PORTEC4. NCCN recommends for IB grade 1 vaginal brachyt...

Is there any indication for ENI in early stage disease or in advanced stages, without pathologic confirmation or PET positivity or CT size criteria?

The patient was initially observed after radical hysterectomy due to young age, FIGO IA grade 2 disease. The patient had isolated, biopsy-proven vagi...

If yes, what would be your target volume for this exceedingly rare histology for this location?

In women receiving HDR intracavitary brachytherapy to treat the vaginal cuff, how do you overcome the challenge of excess lateral vaginal tissue ("dog...

Is anticoagulation for PE an absolute or relative contraindication to IS brachy? Would you favor placement of IVC filter prior to procedure?

History of CDH1 mutation and prophylactic gastrectomy in 2017 - no other primary site found beyond vagina at diagnosis. Vaginal tumor completely resp...

Previously received pelvic EBRT and intracavitary brachytherapy. IORT was administered to the node-positive side wall at the time of exenteration.

Excellent KPS and long disease free interval from initial diagnosis. Initial recurrence 3-4cm at level of renal vessels and down to 1.3cm after chemo.

Recurrence was 2cm and PET confirmed local. Excision with positive margins. Current plan for salvage whole pelvic RT and vaginal cuff brachytherapy +/...

In  patient with PD SCCA 15mm transverse;  5/20mm invasion; LVSI focally present; margins negative;  0/15 Left pelvic and 0/14 right pe...

Recurrence picked up incidentally on CT. No germ line mutations, somatic tumor testing of node resulted negative. PET confirmed isolated recurrence

Planning carboplatin/taxol/trastuzumab. Cervical stromal invasion on path. Looking for pelvic vs brachy and timing with chemotherapy.

If a patient has limited surgical options and a well defined lesion, would SBRT be reasonable?

What non-pharmacological interventions do you recommend? Do you routinely prescribe prophylactic laxatives to patients initiating opioids? How do you ...

What dose and technique do you use and how do you integrate the subsequent definitive treatment plan?

Would your counseling change if she reported a history of unplanned pregnancy? Is there any wording or waiver you might be able to use warning her of ...

The recently released STARS phase 3 RCT found improved DFS, decreased distant recurrence, with reduced toxicities for chemotherapy (cisplatin + taxol)...

For a patient with a very locally advanced cervical cancer, what is your upper/superior limit of considering para-aortic lymph nodes to be "pelvic" or...

To avoid disfiguring surgery, would you consider treating a 2 cm well lateralized tumor without surgery? If so, would you recommend concurrent chemoth...

How long is too long to wait for recovery? Is there a role for pre-procedure platelet transfusion and/or alternatives to epidural anesthesia?

Would you have reservations in treating patients with breast, GI, or pelvic malignancies with radiation alone or concurrent chemoradiation?

Would you offer VBT alone in a completely resected vaginal cuff recurrence that is grade, recurrent stage IA endometrial cancer, is all staging imagin...

SIBs of 55-57.5 Gy in 25 fractions are frequently mentioned with bowel volume constraints at this dose, but assuming there is no bowel nearby (e.g., b...

How many cycles do you prefer before and after? How long do you tend to wait before starting radiation after initial chemo and after radiation to resu...

If so, what would your target volumes and doses be? How would you sequence with immunotherapy (eg nivolumab)?

How do you "have the talk" in a way that is straightforward without emotionally crushing the patient?

Tumor felt to be technically unresectable due to extensive cervical/parametrial involvement. ER/PR and HER2 testing are pending.

For instance, if you have anal canal involvement, do you cover the entire mesorectum?  Any other adjacent organ invasion that would lead to modif...

Tumor traverses the myometrium to focally involve the serosa; 1/6 sentinels with ITC and the rest negative. 

Specifically, are there strategies you use to 1) empower patients to participate in decision-making and 2) reassure patients who may be skeptical?

Do you use specific tools or take into account certain factors when considering treatment options for older adults?

NCCN vulvar guidelines only recommends inguinal LND but GOG 37 recommended PLND when groin nodes were positive. NCCN penile guidelines also recommende...

Margins widely negative - 1cm, and full bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy performed. 

In an elderly woman who is not felt to be a good candidate for radical surgery is split course radiation alone an option for definitive intent radiati...

If bilateral inguinal LND showed no involved nodes and primary is unresectable (FIGO IVA), can one treat only the primary w/o elective radiation to th...

The 2020 NRG endometrial and cervix contouring guideline update said the anterior margin is a straight line between the aorta and IVC. Should there be...

Disease involves the lungs diffusely and bilaterally. If only palliative treatment is recommended, what should be the target volume (primary only? pr...

In the unfortunate setting where you cannot get an underinsured patient whose policy does not cover radiotherapy started on treatment without guarante...

There are mixed recommendations about re-testing vs simply waiting for a quarantine period prior to resuming therapy. 

Would you offer adj RT for a vaginal primary patient with paravaginal involvement s/p rad hyst w/ upper vaginectomy, BSO and inguinal node dissection?...

Would you consider adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or surveillance?

Do you use brachytherapy or external beam? What prescription / dose / regimen do you typically use? What if there is small bowel hanging into the fiel...

Do you give cuff and chemo or pelvic CRT or chemo alone?

Vulvar cancer is well differentiated. Closest margin is 6mm. LVI is identified T1b N2c Vaginal cancer treated 20 yrs ago described as 5 cm in length...

Final pathology showed grade 3 spindle cell sarcoma of thee vagina involving the anterior lateral cervix 5.6cm x 4.5 x 3.4cm, <0.1cm left lateral m...

For example, RTOG1203 says to include "1-2 cm of tissue anterior to the S1, S2 and S3 sacral segments" but have also heard of stopped at S2 to limit r...

After optimizing symptoms and reversible factors, and attempting cognitive-behavioral interventions and exercise, do you recommend pharmacologic agent...

This case involves an impressive ‘high volume’ vaginal recurrence and patient was not originally planned for adjuvant therapy. Concerned t...

Would you offer EBRT alone or EBRT with vaginal cuff brachytherapy after surgery and chemotherapy for stage III (T3N0) carcinosarcoma of the uterus? ...

What dose would you consider for patients with bulkly pelvic disease and in what situations would you, if ever, dose escalate for local disease with b...

Small bowel is usually the dose limiting OAR while planning cervical HDR brachytherapy. Having the bladder empty during treatment planning and deliver...

For a patient with good response to immunotherapy (unable to receive chemotherapy due to kidney function, comorbidities) where previously avid LN have...

Would you consider additional EBRT or vaginal cuff HDR in a patient with previous tx with EBRT (45Gy) + HDR (30Gy) for a R1 resection with a radial ma...

Does time since adjuvant cuff brachytherapy influence your radiotherapy approach, (for example 18 months vs 5 years)? Do you adjust your bladder/bowel...

http://abstracts.asco.org/199/AbstView_199_180760.html http://abstracts.asco.org/199/AbstView_199_187537.html  

Do you treat the whole bladder in the intial whole pelvic field to 45-50 Gy?

I care deeply about clinical trials but have always struggled on how to approach this topic. I would really appreciate tips from those of you who have...

If an external boost of a gyn primary is necessitated because of the target size or extensive involvement of a critical structure how would ...

How would tumor grade, presence of LVSI, and receipt of chemotherapy factor into your decision?

This has been a common practice in the community. Is there a benefit for certain patients?

How do you counsel a pre-menopausal female with endometrioid cancer desiring definitive RT with egg harvesting and IVF for fertility preservation inst...

Obviously, patient and caregiver preferences are paramount. But, what factors do you consider? Does expanded hospice (e.g., Medicare Care Choices) inf...

How would you approach a patient who is receiving chemoRT but has confirmed COVID-19 with minor symptoms, as breaking treatment for 2 weeks quarantine...

When a physical exam is important and telehealth is not a good option, should we be proactive and reschedule or should we continue to see them as sche...

How do you prevent early menopause in women? Please comment on freezing of eggs, oophopexy, supine vs prone position, vaginal dialator. 

Insurance authorization for protons is pending, but if the patient cannot have protons would you treat with standard fractionation to ~70Gy or conside...

NCCN recommends brachytherapy plus or minus pelvic RT for surgically staged Grade 1, Stage II patients, but these originally staged IIB patients were ...

Since there is no overall survival benefit, does the local control benefit outweigh the increased risk for distant metastasis? How do you select patie...

For the management of stage II endometrial cancer, NCCN says pelvic RT and/or vaginal brachytherapy.   Do you ever add vaginal cuff boost to pelv...

The patient had an initial partial vulvectomy and nodal dissection 6 years prior to recurrence, with no adjuvant RT offered initially due to lack of c...

Patient being treated for cervical cancer noted to have a < 1 cm posterior vaginal fornix defect with a small focus epiploclia herniating into the ...

MRI and cervical biopsy are negative for cervical involvement 

Would there be a substanital increase in the risk of toxicity using such a scheme?  We frequently have patients who have to travel long distance...

In December 2018, Horn et al reported the results of a phase 3 clinical trial in the NEJM (N Engl J Med 2018; 379:2220-2229). This trial included prev...

How long after hysterectomy would you consider delivering adjuvant radiation therapy? Would this differ for external beam versus brachytherapy? Are t...

If so, are there any lymph node cut-offs you would have in terms of lymph node number or pathological ECE before you would add contralateral RT? What ...

Could you discuss how you decide between IMRT or SBRT boost for a patient who is not able to receive intracavitary or interstitial HDR or LDR brachyth...

are there any positive or negative synergies from combined megestrol/RT treatment?

Should these patients be managed similar to p16 positive anal squamous cell carcinoma, and allowed six months or more for complete regression before c...

What chemotherapy and sequencing with radiation therapy would you recommend? IS surgery a component of the treatment?

Surgeon is not planning vulvectomy, since biopsies showed 2 mm depth of invasion. Also tumor board felt dose to the primary site should be only about...

At what point would you introduce the discussion of weight management, whether for risk reduction or overall health?

The NCCN recommends either systemic therapy + brachytherapy or pelvic RT + brachy or brachy alone or observation. How do you decide among these option...

Specifically, is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) an effective treatment for refractory radiation cystitis?

Do you use a trimmed 10 mm expansion on HR-CTV? Do you also include the entire initial extent of disease? How much does your IR-CTV coverage affect yo...

Female in her 60s who had presented originally with well-differentiated endometrioid adeno clinically and radiographically involving bilateral paramet...

For a woman with complete resection of serous intraepithelial carcinoma of the endometrium, would you recommend adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy? Wh...

Current NCCN guidelines suggest that vaginal brachytherapy is optional, and there may be concern for over-treatment locally given competing risk of di...

A literature search indicates that most port site recurrences are managed fairly aggressively with chemoRT or RT doses 45-66 Gy. This is understandabl...

Sequentially or do you integrate the cuff brachy with the EBRT and if so what schedule, BIW, weekly, etc?

Hydrogen peroxide douches? Antibiotics? (If so, what are you covering?) When do you initiate hyperbaric oxygen? Do you find pentoxyfyline helpful? How...

When you prescribe your dose at 0.5 cm depth of the vagina? For instance, if you measure a vaginal length to be 8 cm, would you prescribe to treat 4 c...

Would organ invasion (bladder/rectum), size, feasibility of T&O, or size of nodes push you toward neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

While EBRT + brachy may be preferred, what treatment would you offer if surgery has been performed? What dose and volume of EBRT, brachytherapy, or bo...

How do you weigh this concern with the need to prophylactically treat non-involved, high risk para-aortic lymphatics?

How high would you extend your field? Would you treat differently if the patient had lower PET avid pelvic lymph nodes?

Do you use size criteria (i.e. bulky nodes over 3 cm), specific adverse histology (adenocarcinoma), or location (near small bowel), etc. 

More recent Italian (Sozzi et al) and French data (Canlorbe et al) show associations of greater tumor size > 25-35mm with higher rates of local &am...

She has extensive colposcopic lesions at upper/mid vagina, but no palpable/visible lesions on standard pelvic exam. Pelvic MRI with 20cc US gel in vag...

PORTEC-3 assigned women with high risk stage I or stage II-III endometrial carcinoma to adjuvant external beam radiation vs adjuvant chemoradiation wi...

Has your institution changed practice patters based on the findings of the LACC Trial (Pedro et al., SGO in 3/2018) showing worse outcomes with roboti...

Would you deliver definitive RT in place of inguinal lymph node dissection in light of new data (PMID: 29336837) In the case of high risk but radiogr...

NCCN guidelines mention EBRT/vaginal brachytherapy as options in addition to chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for high grade histologies, stages 1...

If the patient is responding to external beam and likely to be converted to resectable, what brachytherapy dose/fractionation do you prescribe and wha...

Assuming no distant metastases, should this scenario be managed with "sequential" chemoradiation to the para-aortic region with an external beam boost...

For HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer do you use the dose optimization algorithm?  Is there a standard dwell time distribution that should be...

For example, assuming an excellent performance status, would you consider local radiation to the primary and metastasis in someone with a single ...

Patient had a single 3cm node s/p  excisional biopsy of the one node without nodal dissection. We have done anoscopy and a thorough GYN exam...

EBRT boost only? SBRT? If you recommend interstitial brachytherapy do you place needles freehand or with a template based approach?  

What would be the appropriate treatment for grade I endometrial cancer s/p TAH/BSO but with SLNB yielding negative nodes. The uterus contained a 2cm t...

Assuming the early stage endometrial cancer was treated with TAH+BSO initially and no further treatment, what would your recommendations be for HGIL? ...

 If so what dose/fractionation? This was reported here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918530/

For women treated with IMRT, there are multiple ways to define the upper border of the field 1) contouring the PAs up to where the renal vessels exit...

Type II endometrial cancers made up roughly 15% of GOG 249 the study population, but seemed to be balanced between both arms.  Single institutio...

After whole pelvis radiation therapy, what would be the highest dose you would allow in a single fraction, versus the total course EQD2 for small bowe...

Would you consider this in a patient with a single omental metastasis found and no other distant spread after surgery?

For example, a patient with cervical or anal SCC who has missed many treatments due to side effects, low blood counts, hospitalizations, or non-compli...

What factors influence your decision? Does high grade histology or pathological stage play a role? If the patient received chemotherapy due to +LN, pa...

What are your specific protocols for monitoring and for dosing narcotics and sedatives?

In what situations is it appropriate to offer observation (rather than VBT) to patients with stage II endometrial carcinoma who have had a radical hys...

If a patient has a gynecological cancer, how long should one wait after RT before a screening colonoscopy can be completed?

Does definitive or adjuvant setting effect your planned dose?  For example, for a woman with IB2 cervical cancer status post hysterectomy, who wa...

Do you assume some recovery since the prior course of RT? If so, how much over what time period?

Would you utilize IMRT to provide a boost to gross disease? If so, how would you define your treatment volumes and what dose would try to achieve? Als...

Would you add chemotherapy if there was gross residual disease, pN+ and/or ECE?

Can the classic indications for post-hysterectomy radiation (eg. "Sedlis" and "Peter's" criteria) be applied? Does the histology change radiation dose...

Is there evidence for SBRT for recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumors? 

If offering radiation therapy, would you treat extended field whole pelvis or just cover the para-aortic LNs with an involved field volume? Would your...

What are the pros and cons of completing a simple hysterectomy versus aborting surgery followed by chemoRT?

With stage I/II vaginal cancer and an excellent response to 4500cGy EBRT with <5mm residual thickness of tumor remaining, what is your dose/fractio...

When do you continue with treatment and when do you terminate the plan? What is your criteria? 

Close but negative radial margins? LVSI?  What fractionation/dose do you use for your vaginal cuff boost if used? 

Would your recommendations change based on stage? What factors would influence your decision to include presacral lymph nodes in a locally advanced en...

Does this differ if the primary is vaginal? Do you prescribe the same dose when using an intracavitary applicator for cervix cancer? 

For palliation of vulvar cancer, what fractionation due you typically use.  Can some of the toxicity be avoided with a shorter course of treatmen...

Prior to starting vaginal cuff brachytherapy, do you wait for a specificed period of time prior to vaginal cuff brachy after hysterectomy?   Do y...

With the results of the EMBRACE protocol, how do you approach MRI planning?  Do you plan with applicators in situ, or use preimplant (post EBRT) ...

For definitive vulvar ca, is 5940 cGy the minimum acceptable dose for gross disease? 5760cGy? Or should the dose be escalated beyond 60Gy?

Can the drug continue during radiation therapy or should it be discontinued at a specified time prior to initiation of radiation?

For example, would you consider adjuvant chemotherapy alone to be sufficient in a patient with an isolated pelvic recurrence and positive margin after...

For example, how do you decide between applicators such as tandem and ovoid versus tandem split ring insertion for cervical brachytherapy patients?&nb...

For instance, RTOG 0418 did not allow clear cell or papillary serous histologies, but subsequent trials that allow IMRT have (GOG 0249, 0258, RTOG 120...

Interstitial needles can result in hot spots in the bladder, but how well tolerated is that? On the other hand, intracavitary applicators usually don'...

For example, in an otherwise intermediate risk localized endometrial cancer (Grade 2, FIGO IB)?

In the setting of a negative lymph node sampling, would you treat a full pelvis or mini-pelvis to compensate for lack of the appropriate surgery? Is a...

In patients who don't meet traditional criteria for adjuvant chemoradiation from Peters (GOG 109) and < 2 high risk factors from Rotman (GOG 92) fo...

If the post-operative simulation films reveal a significant lymphocele secondary to pelvic lymph node sampling, is it imperative that the entire lymph...

The gyn oncs at my institution sometimes will not perform lymphadenectomy if biopsy indicates low risk disease. Would LVSI as sole adverse risk factor...

Do you use SIB or sequential approach? Do size of lymph nodes influence your dose or decision?

What exactly do you contour and what is your dose constraint to that volume?

Does using something like a vienna applicator allow you to avoid dose escalation with more external beam? How do you recommend doing a classic pa...

Some classic references recommend the coverage of the entirety of the sacrum but the volume delineation guidelines for both seem to only cover the mos...

My patient’s family has asked that I don’t tell her that she has metastatic cancer because it will devastate her. I am planning on palliat...

The patient failed previous excisions and medical therapy and is no longer a surgical candidate.

How should we counsel young women who are receiving treatment for GI/GYN malignancies?

Do you plan every fraction, every other fraction, or use one plan for the whole treatment?

The most recent ABS guidelines don't discuss a dose constraint for the small bowel.

Do you treat PAs if pelvic nodes are positive? If common iliacs are involved? Only if there are positive PA nodes?

Do the urethral constraints used in prostate brachytherapy apply to women undergoing gyn brachy?


Papers discussed in this category


Gynecologic oncology, 2004-03

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 2011-11-15

Lancet, 2010-03-06

Obstet Gynecol, 1980-10-01

Lancet (London, England), 2009-01-10

Gynecol Oncol, 2019 Aug 16

JAMA,

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 2005-08-01

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 1990-02-01

Brachytherapy, 2013

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2011-02-01

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2013 Jul 9

Gynecologic oncology, 2003-12

JAMA Netw Open, 2021 Apr 01

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 2014-05-01

Brachytherapy, 2015

Gynecologic oncology, 2007-11

Eur. J. Cancer, 2008 Apr 02

J Clin Oncol,

Gynecologic oncology, 2018-10

Gynecologic oncology, 2014-11

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2018-08-01

Brachytherapy, 2019 Sep - Oct

Gynecologic oncology, 2009-10

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2006-01-01

Gynecologic oncology, 2013-10

Gynecologic oncology, 2013-01

Eur. J. Cancer, 2010 Jul 07

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2019-07-20

American journal of clinical oncology, 2015-06

Curr Urol Rep, 2018 Apr 13

Urology, 2016 Apr 25

Urology, 2005-04

The Journal of urology, 1999-02

Urol. Int., 2012 Jul 10

Gynecologic oncology, 2014-12

Gynecologic oncology, 2013-08

J Clin Oncol, 2012 May 10

Ann. Oncol., 2011-02-01

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 2012 Aug 14

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 1994-07-30

Obstet Gynecol, 2009-09-01

J Gynecol Oncol, 2012 Jul 02

Radiother Oncol, 2015 24

Brachytherapy, 2012

International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society, 2011-07

The Lancet. Oncology, 2017-03

Gynecol. Oncol., 2008-11-01

Eur. J. Cancer, 2016-09-01

Gynecologic oncology, 2017-11

Brachytherapy, 2019 Apr 17

The New England journal of medicine, 2019-06-13

Lancet Oncol., 2019 Jul 22

Gynecol Oncol, 2019 Sep

Gynecologic oncology, 2004-04

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 2010-10

Obstetrics and gynecology, 1988-01

International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society, 2014-11

Gynecologic oncology, 2015-06

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2017-03-01

Gynecologic oncology, 2006-10

Gynecologic oncology, 2009-03

Br. J. Cancer, 2006-08-07

Gynecol. Oncol., 2009-07-01

Medicine (Baltimore), 2015-04-01

Cancer Nurs, 2017-04-21

American journal of clinical oncology, 2018-08

Gynecologic oncology, 2014-12

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2005-12-01

Brachytherapy, 2016 Nov - Dec

Radiother Oncol, 2016-09-01

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2013-04-01

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2013-09-01

Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol., 2015 Aug 22

Cancer Res Treat, 2014 Jan 15

Gynecologic oncology, 2017-11

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2005-05-01

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 1992

Radiother Oncol, 2016 Apr 29

Gynecologic oncology, 2014-05

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2014-12-01

Practical radiation oncology, 2015

Curr Oncol Rep,

Cochrane Database Syst Rev,

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2012-06-10

Lancet Oncol, 2017 Jun

Lancet (London, England), 2017-10-28

The New England journal of medicine, 2016-12-01

The New England journal of medicine, 2012-04-12

The Lancet. Oncology, 2017-09

Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 2014-10

Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2010 Sep 08

Practical radiation oncology, 2017

Gynecologic oncology, 2018-08

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2017-04-01

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2019-05-01

Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012 May 16

Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer,

Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015 Sep 15

Pathol. Int.,

Oncotarget,

Semin Radiat Oncol, 2004-01-01

Practical radiation oncology, 2017

Seminars in radiation oncology, 2019-04

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 1994-06-15

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2010-12-01

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 2010-06

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2006-08-01

Gynecologic oncology, 2005-11

Gynecol Oncol, 2017 Aug

J Gynecol Oncol, 2015 Nov 23

Int J Gynaecol Obstet,

Int J Womens Health, 2017 May 02

Radiat Oncol, 2015 Feb 22

Obstet Gynecol,

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2014-03-15

Gynecol. Oncol.,

Brachytherapy, 2015

J. Clin. Oncol., 2011 Mar 28

BMC Cancer, 2017 Apr 28

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 2015 Jan 30

Lancet Oncol., 2018 Feb 12

Gynecol. Oncol., 2018 Aug 03

Int J Gynecol Cancer, 2020 Dec 18

European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 2012-07

Gynecologic oncology, 2011-07

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2003-09-15

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol, 2018 Jan 11

AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology, 1996-02

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2013-09-01

Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2013-08-21

Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, 2010-02

J Dermatol Case Rep,

International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society, 2019-01

, 2020 Sep 06

Gynecologic oncology, 2019-04

J Gynecol Oncol,

Gynecol Oncol, 2020 Aug 15

Gynecologic oncology, 2009-10

Lancet, 2008 Dec 16

Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2017 Dec 06

Lancet,

Journal of minimally invasive gynecology, 2016-02-01

Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2020 Jul 18

Cancer, 1987-10-15

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2004-03-01

Gynecologic oncology, 2015-11

Gynecol Oncol, 2020 May 29

Technology in cancer research & treatment, 2008-10

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 1991-07

Cancer,

Obstetrics and gynecology, 1986-12

Gynecol Oncol, 2020 Oct 13

J Obstet Gynaecol Can,

Int J Gynecol Cancer,

Gynecol Oncol Rep, 2020 Jan 30

World J Surg Oncol, 2017 Jan 10

Practical radiation oncology, 2019

N. Engl. J. Med.,

J Gynecol Oncol,

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2008-11-15

Practical radiation oncology, 2017

Practical radiation oncology, 2018

Brachytherapy, 2019

Radiother Oncol, 2020 Nov 05

The New England journal of medicine, 1999-04-15

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2000-04

Ann Oncol, 2012 Feb 21

JAMA Oncol,

Ecancermedicalscience, 2019 Aug 06

Brachytherapy, 2021 Mar 26

Int J Gynecol Cancer, 2019 Jan 04

Gynecologic oncology, 1998-08

EMBO Mol Med, 2020 Apr 29

J Oncol, 2020 Jun 24

Gynecologic oncology, 2019-06

Gynecol Oncol, 2021 Mar 05

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2004-08-01

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2009-10-01

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 1985-08

Cancer, 1981-08-15

Brachytherapy, 2020 Dec 29

Brachytherapy, 2002

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