N. Engl. J. Med.
Alpelisib for -Mutated, Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer.   
mutations occur in approximately 40% of patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. The PI3Kα-specific inhibitor alpelisib has shown antitumor activity in early studies.
In a randomized, phase 3 trial, we compared alpelisib (at a dose of 300 mg per day) plus fulvestrant (at a dose of 500 mg every 28 days and once on day 15) with placebo plus fulvestrant in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer who had received endocrine therapy previously. Patients were enrolled into two cohorts on the basis of tumor-tissue mutation status. The primary end point was progression-free survival, as assessed by the investigator, in the cohort with -mutated cancer; progression-free survival was also analyzed in the cohort without -mutated cancer. Secondary end points included overall response and safety.
A total of 572 patients underwent randomization, including 341 patients with confirmed tumor-tissue mutations. In the cohort of patients with -mutated cancer, progression-free survival at a median follow-up of 20 months was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5 to 14.5) in the alpelisib-fulvestrant group, as compared with 5.7 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 7.4) in the placebo-fulvestrant group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.85; P<0.001); in the cohort without -mutated cancer, the hazard ratio was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.58 to 1.25; posterior probability of hazard ratio <1.00, 79.4%). Overall response among all the patients in the cohort without -mutated cancer was greater with alpelisib-fulvestrant than with placebo-fulvestrant (26.6% vs. 12.8%); among patients with measurable disease in this cohort, the percentages were 35.7% and 16.2%, respectively. In the overall population, the most frequent adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were hyperglycemia (36.6% in the alpelisib-fulvestrant group vs. 0.7% in the placebo-fulvestrant group) and rash (9.9% vs. 0.3%). Diarrhea of grade 3 occurred in 6.7% of patients in the alpelisib-fulvestrant group, as compared with 0.3% of those in the placebo-fulvestrant group; no diarrhea of grade 4 was reported. The percentages of patients who discontinued alpelisib and placebo owing to adverse events were 25.0% and 4.2%, respectively.
Treatment with alpelisib-fulvestrant prolonged progression-free survival among patients with -mutated, HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer who had received endocrine therapy previously. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals; SOLAR-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02437318.).

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