International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 2017-09-01
Phase 1 Study of Ipilimumab Combined With Whole Brain Radiation Therapy or Radiosurgery for Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases.   
We performed a phase 1 study to determine the maximum tolerable dose and safety of ipilimumab with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases from melanoma.
Based on the intracranial disease burden, patients underwent WBRT (arm A) or SRS (arm B). The ipilimumab starting dose was 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks, starting on day 3 of WBRT or 2 days after SRS. The ipilimumab dose was escalated to 10 mg/kg using a 2-stage, 3+3 design. The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerable dose of ipilimumab combined with radiation therapy. The secondary endpoints were overall survival, intracranial and extracranial control, progression-free survival, and toxicity. The registration number is NCT01703507.
The characteristics of the 16 patients enrolled between 2011 and 2014 were mean age, 60 years; median number of brain metastases, 2 (range 1->10); and number with EC disease, 13 (81%). Treatment included WBRT (n=5), SRS (n=11), and ipilimumab 3 mg/kg (n=7) or 10 mg/kg (n=9). The median follow-up was 8 months (arm A) and 10.5 months (arm B). A total of 21 grade 1 to 2 neurotoxic effects occurred, with no dose-limiting toxicities. One patient experienced grade 3 neurotoxicity before ipilimumab administration. Ten additional grade 3 toxicities were reported, with gastrointestinal toxicities (n=5; 31%) the most common. No patient developed grade 4 or 5 toxicity. The median progression-free survival and overall survival in arm A was 2.5 months and 8 months and in arm B was 2.1 months and not reached, respectively.
Concurrent ipilimumab 10 mg/kg with SRS is safe. The WBRT arm was closed early because of slow accrual but demonstrated safety with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg. No patient experienced dose-limiting toxicity. Larger studies, including those with combination checkpoint inhibitor therapy and SRS, are warranted.

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