Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2020 Oct 20
Surgical Management of Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases.   
Patients with neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs) may develop carcinoid syndrome, carcinoid heart disease, or other symptoms from overproduction of hormones. Hepatic resection and cytoreduction is the most direct treatment of NETLMs in eligible patients, and cytoreduction improves symptoms, may reduce the sequelae of carcinoid syndrome, and extends survival. Parenchymal-sparing procedures, such as ablation and enucleation, should be considered during cytoreduction to maximize treatment of multifocal tumors while preserving healthy liver tissue. For patients with large hepatic tumor burdens, high-grade disease, or comorbidities precluding surgery, liver-directed and systemic therapies can be used to palliate symptoms and improve progression-free survival.

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