Genitourinary Cancers   

Questions discussed in this category



Are they necessary? Any group of patients that you use them on (concurrent ADT, anemia, or use of whole pelvis, etc)?

Patient had had multiple surgeries and non healing wounds. If so, what dose/fractionation did you use?  Did your patient have durable control of ...

If so, how would you design and deliver the treatment?

Would you offer SBRT?  What criteria do you use to consider SBRT?  What dose limits do you place on the glenohumeral joint?

There are so many available options—standard fractionated RT, moderate hypofractionation, SBRT, protons, combined EBRT and brachy—how do y...

Does PSMA have enough data to use to guide therapy, even if the result is obtained as part of a clinical trial? Would you change your hormonal recomme...

No actionable mutation on NGS testing. What approved therapy do you prefer? Are there specific investigational agents currently in clinical trial...

Does the TURP defect in the prostate affect efficacy or toxicity or SBRT?

STAMPEDE arm H uses the CHAARTED definition for bone metastases in the axial skeleton. There is no mention of patients with non-regional nodes. Would ...

Given consensus contours for prostate bed, volumes can approach the sigmoid and include a significant amount of bladder, how do you meet these objecti...

What would you consider if the recurrence occurs multiple times in the prostate? Salvage surgery if a candidate?  HIFU or cryo?  ADT?

What makes you favor ADT vs local therapy? Any preferred local therapy options? Any other special considerations?

Prospective single arm studies with short term follow-up were recently presented in abstract form (Kishan et al, IJROBP, Oct 2017; Mallick et al, IJRO...

What systemic therapy options are available for ESRD patients?

If no testicular mass on exam or ultrasound - is there a role for orchiectomy? What chemotherapy regimen would you use and how many cycles?

Patients can have this for many reasons including being completely anuric, incontinence, nephrostomy tubes, etc.

If you would offer radiation, what dose do you recommend? How do you simulate and treat the patient? The patient is not a surgical or chemo candidate.

Assume PSA less than 0.5. Would axumin positive nodes change your mind? What dose do you use? Do you require biopsy first to prove pathologic nod...

For example, is there any data to suggest a benefit to starting with immunotherapy prior to TKI or the alternative?

There is a recent publication that nicely summarizes the molecular/genetic tests for prostate cancer (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123120). W...

Assuming patient received appropriate local therapy for brain metastases, which agent would you use?

Are there any chemotherapy regimens that can be used in elderly patients with poor PS who are not candidate for BEP?

Is a detectable PSA on ADT a harbinger of biochemical recurrence? Is there a threshold value above which you are concerned (ie. 1.0 vs  0.5 Ng/mL...

If you recommend adjuvant radiation, how would you treat this? Because of the cystectomy, there is no typical prostatic fossa.

The recently published executive summary from ASTRO/ASCO/AUA hypofractionated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer states "Five-fracti...

Are there any anatomical changes that would make the placement impractical or hurtful for the patient?

Some considerations: -Cabozantinib (Based on CABOSUN trial, NCCN does not list this as a Category 1 recommendation)-Nivolumab + Ipilimumab (CheckMate...

Is there any specific precautions or concerns to consider with TKI initiation if the patient has vasogenic edema?

RTOG 0815 protocol says 1 cm from base of SV in any direction. Some contour the SV visible in the slices within 1 cm sup/inf from base of SV.  P...

(assuming that the patient is int-poor risk, has measurable disease outside of the CNS, warrants treatment with appropriate PS)

In a patient who has undergone prior cryoablation for prostate cancer and develops a biopsy proven local recurrence, what dose and fractionation would...

Given CHAARTED and STAMPEDE, what would you recommend? Would lymph node vs osseous mets change your recommendation given the trial did allow patients ...

How reliable is MRI only diagnosis of prostatitis? Assume no prior PSA and Group grade 2 or 3. Would you treat prostatitis? How do you deal with ADT e...

What is the time window in which you would consider adding AR targeted therapy? Is there a time frame in which you would NOT consider introducing sin...

Given the length of the scan and higher likelihood of patients being unable to hold their bladder, do you deviate from CT simulation and treatment ins...

Do you prefer surgery vs radiation? For surgical patients, do you offer neoadjuvant chemotherapy? If so what regimen? 

Is there an optimal strategy to minimize unnecesary steroid use?For example, pre-treatment dexamethasone or 3 day dexamethasone? Prednisone only conti...

Is there data and FDA approval for this indication? What about for nodal failure after radiation? 

Is there a role for neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy? Do patients with sarcomatoid histology respond to checkpoint inhibitors?

Would you have reservations in treating patients with breast, GI, or pelvic malignancies with radiation alone or concurrent chemoradiation?

Assume this is a PET Axumin avid node and is only site of disease. Previously this high risk prostate cancer patient had 45 Gy to the whole pelvis and...

How high would you try to boost those involved nodes if they are in a favorable location with respect to his rectum and small bowel? 

Based on recent data published suggesting an OS advantage to the addition of ADT vs. brachytherapy boost to EBRT (Jackson et al, 2020), it is unclear ...

In the HERO trial, relugolix, a highly selective oral GnRH antagonist, demonstrated faster and sustained castration, faster testosterone recovery, and...

Are there certain situations where a hydrogel spacer is most useful based on treatment modality (SBRT, protons, brachy, etc) or other factors?

Do you ever recommend TURP, short course of ADT or other treatments prior to RT to downsize?

An ASCO 2020 poster from the German Testicular Cancer Study Group found that 37% of CSIS seminoma and nonseminoma were miscatagorized resulting in ina...

What dose constraint would you use for the neobladder? Small bowel constraint of 54Gy? Or would you recommend observation or ADT alone or low dose RT ...

The protocol for the James trial (NEJM 2012) states: "non-target tissue may be excluded at the discretion of treating physician." For gyn applications...

Should treatment be based on current histology (rhabdomyosarcoma) or origin (germ cell)?

Any comments/recommendations regarding the UK approach using 52.5Gy in 20 fractions (Chin et al., IJROBP, 2020)?

Is there a contraindication to radiation therapy for prostate cancer in patients who are carriers of ATM mutation? Would you offer surgery upfront? Hy...

Would you recommend conventional fractionation or moderate hypofractionation over SBRT or brachytherapy?

Would you consider this even though this falls out of scope of STAMPEDE trial? Under what circumstances would you consider such an approach versus not...

For those of us just transitioning over to hypofractionation, what are reasonable, but conservative, constraints that you use?

There are conflicting reports of increased incidence of bleomycin-induced lung toxicity with G-CSF.

Is there data that hilar location is a contraindication? Any increased risk of ureteral stricture or other unforeseen issues? What dose/fractionation ...

How does recommendation change if this a favorable intermediate, unfavorable intermediate or high risk patient? Is additional imaging or biopsy recomm...

Would you forego neoadjuvant chemotherapy? Are you using growth factor support differently? Any changes to immunotherapy? Other considerations?

U of Alabama paper states no max dose constraints used but they try to keep V60 < 10% or 10 cc (these constraints appear to be difficult to achieve...

Would you consider SBRT and if so what dose/fractionation would you use if the lesion was in the head of the mandibula? If not would you give a fract...

Is a positive imaging enough to confirm the diagnosis? If not, what situations are appropriate for a biopsy?

There was an abstract in European J of Cancer (Srinivasan R, 2014:50: S6, P8) showing a good response rate with Bevacizumab and Erlotinib. Would you u...

How would a much higher risk cancer affect decision making? How would you treat him? 

If a patient has had a diagnostic MRI, can you obtain another planning MRI after fiducial marker and SpaceOAR placement? 

Concurrent? Neoadjuvant and concurrent? If neoadjuvant, how long before? 

Abstract 5014 at ASCO annual meeting 2019 showed superiority of PSMA-PET imaging over fluciclovine-PET imaging.  Are you utilizing these speciali...

Would you be more mindful of bladder dose or hotspots? Are urinary outcomes different if the surgical procedures are done before or after radiation?&n...

Patient had multiple positive margins and is on ADT.  What would your treatment volumes be and to what dose?

Do you recommend before and/or after procedures? Do you have the same recommendations for any or all the below: hydrogel space, fiducial placement, LD...

Given the publication by Malone, et al (JCO, 2019), how do you sequence ADT relative to the start of RT? https://ascopubs.org/doi/full/10.1200/JCO.19....

Do you routinely include pelvic lymph nodes, prostatic urethra, and prostate?

In the SPARTAN trial, median PSA at study entry was ~ 7. Does the MFS benefit extend to patients with low PSA(< 2 or < 1)?

Patient had neoadjuvant ADT. Are there any preferred isotopes, seed activities, etc for small prostate brachytherapy?

Any difference if patient is undergoing HDR vs LDR? For example, prescription doses are 45Gy for EBRT and 10.5Gy x 2 for HDR boost. 

A recent study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480153 showed an improvement in bichemical failure with higher doses. How much impact do...

Do you treat in this scenario if mild/moderate infiltration? What are your thoughts on the article Fischer-Valuck, et al, PRO, 2017 (PMID: 280895...

Would you recommend radiation to the prostatic fossa and/or the oligometastatic site? How would you dose these areas? Would you recommend ADT?

For instance, if the fluclicovine scan shows a few small avid nodes not only in the pelvis but extending to the paraaortic region, would you treat the...

NCCN include active surveillance as an option in specific circumstances based on Rini et al. (Lancet Oncology 2016) however this set is not well defin...

Would you treat with chemoimmunotherapy based on IMvigor130 data presented at ESMO Congress 2019?

e.g. lymph node metastasis, presence of tumor involving the peritoneal surfaces and/or the abdominal wall. If so, which regimen would you offer?

The patient's urologist will not offer testosterone supplementation unless he undergoes definitive therapy of his early stage prostate cancer. Are the...

Wouldn't lymph node dissection improve sensitivity of staging and inform adjuvant treatment decisions?

Based on the RADICALS-RT trial presented at ESMO, can RT be omitted in post op prostate patients in favor of salvage RT? If not which group of patient...

i.e. gross disease on scans that is too diffuse to be removed completely and/or decreasing but not normal markers Do you pursue close surveillance, s...

If there was still was PSMA PET/CT activity in the prostate after a year of ADT would you offer RT to the prostate +/-nodes? 

Does time interval from initial radiation therapy matter. Assume this is in the case of castrate resistant prostate cancer in which all other avenues ...

Will your recommendation change if there is suspicious/confirmed locally recurrent nodule in the prostate bed?

Specifically, would you consider utilizing sodium thiosulfate in adults based on the pediatric data from Brock et al. NEJM 2018?

68 y.o. Male underwent inguinal orchiectomy and spermatic cord resection of a 5 cm malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the spermatic cord. Margins of re...

How do you assess risk of tumor lysis syndrome, and is hydration sufficient or should hypouricemic agents be used as well?

What would be a safe dose for ifosfamide and how would you time with HD? Alternatively, would you recommend a different regimen? What about using neoa...

Would you require the rituxan to be held prior to radiation?  Would this matter if it was in the post-prostatectomy setting?

UpToDate indicates that VIP is an alternative to BEP for men who are not candidates for bleomycin, and that one criteria for not being such a candidat...

Patient has small cell carcinoma of the bladder with extensive hepatic metastases. Would you extrapolate the approach from IMpower133?

Should cystectomy remain standard of care? (Recently debated in JAMA Oncology: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2520055...

In a patient with a prior response to ADT and progression on taxane and platinum chemotherapy, would you consider AR directed therapy?

If a patient had biopsy proven gleason 6 disease 3-5 years ago and has had a slowly rising PSA to between 15-20 over the past year or 2, would you req...

Per the ALSYMPCA study, they excluded patients with > 3cm lymphadenopathy. Patient is currently on Xtandi and Lupron and refuses taxotere.

Would you give chemotherapy concurrently with radiation? Would you change your radiation dose?

Does the STAMPEDE trial, showing a survival benefit with the addition of docetaxel to standard treatment, change the standard of care for high risk, n...

Would you offer definitive management with radiation and ADT? Or systemic therapy alone such as with ADT+abiraterone?

Do you prescribe antiandrogen beyond the typical 2-3 weeks after starting LHRH agonist therapy to prevent testosterone flare? If so, for how long do y...

ENZAMET and TITAN trials published at ASCO 2019 show benefit to both 2nd generation AR antagonists when compared to placebo but wondering how this wil...

For example in a patient with a good performance status and a biologically favorable cancer (ER+ breast cancer, EGFR+ NSCLC, or prostate cancer), are ...

Is there any role for definitive prostate radiation extrapolating from the Stampede and recent RTOG 0521?

Would you consider scrotum contaminated and consider including it in fields?

Would you administer extended field radiation therapy?  Would you omit radiation therapy?

The STAMPEDE trial recently published in Lancet used 55 Gy in 20 fractions but did not include dose constraints.

Does the update of RTOG 96-01, presented at ASTRO 2015, change your practice for these patients? Or should ADT be limited to a particular subgroup?

Are there any patient and/or pathologic features that would lend you to considering IL-2 over other approved I/O or TKI therapies?

How does it vary by technique (standard fractionation, hypofractionation, or SBRT)? Does your PTV change if you are treating pelvic lymph nodes?

For example, if the patient has low PSA, Gleason 6 disease but has high volume (>50% positive cores) would that discourage you from recommending ac...

SBRT vs more comprehensive nodal RT with SIB to involved node? Would you include the prostate bed in your treatment volume? ADT duration? What other f...

I have seen the question regarding treatment of non-clear cell RCC in general: https://www.themednet.org/question/3934. Is there any data or experienc...

Arterial events have clear instructions to permanently discontinue on the FDA label.  Especially in HCC without many other treatment options, giv...

Do you prefer LDR prostate brachytherapy first or as a "boost" following external beam radiation therapy?

Is there a benefit to one fractionation schedule v. the other?

Is there a strong rationale for treating the whole prostate (not prostatic urethra) electively to 41-50 Gy?

Would you consider EBRT alone, brachytherapy alone, or EBRT with a brachy boost? Would you counsel these patients differently regarding short/long ter...

If the patient had pelvic adenopathy, would you include that in your treatment volumes?  What dose and fractionation would be considered appropri...

The original study used 50% of positive cores, but the MSKCC nomogram can give a high risk of EPE with just 4-5 positive cores out of 12

Given that it is cleared from the body by renal filtration, are you concerned about clearance issues?

For example, in standard high-risk we generally cover proximal 2cm to elective dose, before doing cone down boost to prostate and proximal 1cm. If a ...

In particular would it affect the decisions for brachytherapy or androgen deprivation? How do you monitor for treatment response since they may not m...

Are there problems with volume changes from the spacer dissolving while the patient is on treatment? What is your department's protocol for these type...

In light of the data from ERA223 showing increased deaths and fractures with the combination of radium-223 and abiraterone compared to abiraterone alo...

Assuming no advanced imaging is available, what lymph node morphologic criteria (ie. lack of fatty hilum, size, number of nodes, etc.) do you use to u...

If a patient's PSA goes from undetectable to minimally detectable (ie 0.03-.05) would you wait to offer salvage radiation?  Would your recommenda...

For example, are PET Axumin or PSMA studies being ordered in the upfront setting? 

Which risk estimator is felt to be the most accurate and what threshold? What's the best contouring guidelines for ENI for prostate?

A recent NCBD analysis (Rusthoven et al, JCO 2016) suggests that the addition of prostate RT significantly improves survival compared to ADT alon...

Treatment for small cell/neuroendocrine prostate is extrapolated from data on small cell lung cancer. It now appears that Carboplatin + Etoposide + At...

If the patient is in remission for metastatic melanoma but continue to take an anit-PD1 therapy, it giving ADT, EBRT + brachytherapy safe for a high r...

Are you directed by symptoms, PSA changes or do you have a standard schedule regardless of those factors?

For example, do you change your prescription dose, treatment schedule, or OAR constraints? Have you noticed increased toxicity in older patients, e.g....

For example, for the first 25 fractions, you would treat the rest of the pelvis in 1.8 Gy/fx to 45 Gy, and then using a SIB treat the prostate/proxima...

What factors would you consider? What if this meant treatment of the full kidney? If treatment is recommended, would you utilize an SBRT approach...

Abstract LBA5_PR ‘Radiotherapy (RT) to the primary tumour for men with newly-diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer (PCA): survival results from S...

Node-positive patients were not eligible for ASCENDE-RT, and the current NCCN guidelines do not list brachy boost as an option for regional ...

What is the upper limit of size you would consider offering a patient a five fraction regimen?

If so, what dose? What if there is positive a PA lymph node but no signs of distal mets? 

Prospective International Randomized Phase II Study of Low-Dose Abiteraterone with Food versus Standard Dose Abiraterone In Castration-Resistant Prost...

If so, would you offer pelvic lymph node irradiation in these patients if they have pathologically node positive disease?

Do you change your treatment volumes, particularly when treating the seminal vesicles, to avoid the ureters?

Is there a dose response relationship, as suggested in the phase I MSKCC dose escalation study presented at ASTRO 2017?

Do you use a specific threshold number of sites to make your decision? Apart from assessing for cytopenias, do you consider any other patient factors?

In a patient s/p orchiectomy and with pelvic lymphadenopathy, would you consider lymph node biopsy to confirm involvement by non-seminomatous germ cel...

Would you treat this patient any differently than any other very high risk prostate cancer patient?  Are there any additional dose constraints fo...

Most of the studies have excluded non clear cell histologies. If you use a similar approach to clear cell, have you seen similar responses?

For which patients would you consider addition of apalutamide or enzalutamide? How do you decide between the 2 drugs?

The recent SPARTAN trial showed a remarkable improvement in metastasis free survival and many other secondary endpoints except the lack of significant...

Do you maximize rectal emptiness at the time of sim (ex with enema if needed) or do you simulate with a full rectum since this is most reproducible?&n...

NCCN recommends to change therapy or maintain current therapy in this setting without further clarification. What thresholds would cause a change in t...

Specifically, would the addition of a brachytherapy boost impact his ability to receive future intravesical therapy?

What are the special considerations in the non-metastatic setting vs metastatic setting?

If the patient is refusing hormone therapy is there a contraindication to prostate RT with concurrent 5FU-based chemotherapy?

Many patients are still able to orgasm but are disturbed by the loss of seminal fluid.

Testicular ultrasound, CT, and tumor markers are without abnormalities outside of the mass.

There are now five PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitors approved for metastatic bladder CA, one (Atezolizumab) as first-line therapy in cisplatin-ineligible patients...

Is MRI fusion is adequate for urethral delineation and sparing?  Would you worry about prostate deformation by placement and removal of catheter ...

Specifically, does the Decipher score influence the incorporation and/or duration of ADT? Can it be used to better stratify intermediate risk patients...

Specifically, in patients who have an undetectable PSA post-op, with high risk features such as seminal vesicle invasion, positive margins, or extrapr...

Using the standard whole bladder dose fractionation used in BC2001, 55 Gy in 2.75 Gy fractions.

For instance: urologists who only refer for a rising PSA, even in a patient with high-risk features, those who use Decipher results to decide when to ...

What systemic therapy do you use? Do you incorporate any multi-modality therapies?

Based on the updated results of the PCS IV trial is 18 months of ADT the new standard of care for men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with...

Is there any information on how ADT affects the test operating characteristics?  

Would you initiate abiraterone or enzalutamide for the rising PSA or wait until the patient is symptomatic or has a new site of metastasis?

Does histology, i.e. urothelial carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma, impact this decision?

Are there any other medications, outside of anticoagulation, that would be considered absolute or relative contraindications?

Is a single-fraction HDR boost appropriate following conventionally fractionated EBRT to 45-50.4Gy?

Apart from H&N SCC, are there times where adding an extra dose of radiation due to a tx break is appropriate?  Is there a decent equatio...

What is your preferred dose and fractionation? Do you utilize 4D simulation? Additionally, how conservative are your constraints for ipsilateral uninv...

Pt previously treated with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. If recommending therapy, what is the role of concurrent abiraterone + AD...

What dose would you use?  Would your approach to elective nodal radiation be different in the preoperative setting?

Based on new FDA approval of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in the first-line setting for intermediate- and poor-risk disease, would you give the combinati...

Could observation and serial cystoscopy be a reasonable option or is surgery necessary? If recommending surgery, can a procedure less than a nephroure...

If the two intermediate risk factors are on the lower end of intermediate risk (ex GS 3+4 and PSA 11) with a very small volume disease, can a more int...

Do you sim and treat with their bladder as is? Or do you have patients who do urinate fill their bladder somewhat? Fluid overload is often a considera...

Is it better to treat without hormone suppression?  Or would this be reason enough to push the patient toward prostatectomy?

Data reported by Motzer et al Lancet 2015 demonstrated a statistically superior PFS benefit of lenvatinib monotherapy over everolimus alone. In partic...

Assuming you are treating whole bladder only with concurrent chemotherapy, when would you recommend hypofractionated radiation (20 fractions) vs stand...

Are there special tests you order for SBRT but not IMRT? How does the PSA change differ (if at all) compared to IMRT. Do you still use the Pheonix de...

In the case of patients many years out from RP who have a slowly rising PSA, do you offer salvage RT while the PSA is still very low or follow the PSA...

Recent evidence has been mixed, with no DFS or OS benefit in 1 trial (ASSURE, Haas et al, Lancet 2016) and DFS benefit in another (S-TRAC, Ravaud et a...

If a patient who has undergone radical prostatectomy many years previously presents with biochemical failure and is found to have a nodule in the pros...

If Dynamic Sentinel Lymph Node biopsy is not available, would you refer the patient for node dissection, radiate, or observe? What nodal regions would...

In a patient who has a rising PSA, palpable nodule, MRI findings etc., is it ethical to treat the patient with inadequate information and ri...

For example, previous RT for seminoma several decades ago. How about a more recently treated rectal cancer with pre-op chemoradiation?

Given the apparently stronger results from KEYNOTE 052 (pembrolizumab) compared to IMvigor 211 (atezolizumab), would you consider pembrolizumab for pa...

How do you prioritize alignment of bony anatomy, prostate and nodes? Do you have varying PTV margins for different structures or as compared to prost...

ASCENDE-RT excluded these patients as well as those with a PSA > 40, but it seems these patients may stand to benefit as well.

Would you offer adjuvant radiation? (Dose? Target?) Would you add ADT? Would the number of lymph nodes involved influence your decision?

Does the 1 year of ADT used in the ASCENDE-RT trial present a new option of the standard of care in timing ADT when combined with brachtherapy boost?

The current treatment for bladder adenoCA is surgery. However in non-surgical candidates, RT is an option. Would you consider adding chemo ? Also woul...

Do you have a prostate volume/size threshold? Baseline urinary function? Any other anatomy or patient factors that may make patient not suitable for...

Our urologists routinely get these scans prior to definitive therapy and at times in the postprostatectomy setting.  The high sensitivity makes f...

Specifically, what criteria do you use to quantify "low-volume" prostate cancer?  What other criteria do you consider when defining low volume in...

In addition to scans, would you biopsy the prostate/SV? Would radiation therapy to the untreated pelvic nodes with hormonal therapy be a consideratio...

If so, what chemotherapy regimen would you use? If not, what management options would you generally recommend?

Alternatively, would a biopsy of a metastatic bone lesion be preferred in a patient who has already progressed on chemo and hormonal therapy?

Given the FDA breakthrough therapy designation for olaparib in BRCA1/2 and ATM mutated mCRPC, when do you sequence mCRPC? Do you have a preferred...

Based on 2-3% MSH2 mutation and 1% MLH1 mutation rates in metastatic disease regardless of castration sensitivity, should we be looking for this earli...

cT3 patients were a minority of patients in the data demonstrating superiority of tri-modality therapy. While cT3b patients have particularly poor out...

If current systemic treatment is otherwise controlling the disease and is well-tolerated, is there value to locally aggressive therapy in an attempt t...

Can radium-223 be given to patients with progressive diffuse osseous metastases if they have a history of visceral metastatic disease that resolved wi...

In patients with new bone pain and without any evidence of bone metastases receiving GnRH agonists, how do you manage pain symptoms?

Two recent studies show benefit to up-front abiraterone for metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer, although these studies used control arms ...

Are the results of the STAMPEDE trial presented at ASCO 2017 practice changing?

Is there a length of time that would be considered too long between TURBT and CRT? At what time point would you recommend another cystoscopy to evalua...

Do you use the same constraints that you would for the rectum? Or perhaps employ a lower dose limit, such as not exceeding 65Gy to a small volume of t...

With biopsy-proven, negative systemic restaging disease, what dose and fractionation is appropriate if treating with IMRT? Should ADT generally b...

Given the non-specific nature of AFP and its elevation in various benign conditions, is there an AFP cutoff level or change over time for which you wo...

Would you offer it for positive margins? NCCN says to consider adjuvant radiation for pT3-T4 or pN0-2. Is there sufficient evidence for adjuvant radia...

Which patients do you consider to be chemotherapy-ineligible for the sake of this treatment decision? How strong does the contraindication need to be?

Would you consider this an indication to treat lymph nodes, if you would typically not do so?

What clinical considerations factor into your decision to choose leuprolide vs goserelin vs triptorelin vs degarelix, etc?

NCCN guidelines offer suggested schedules for interval imaging and laboratory studies, but also make it clear that the quality of evidence for these r...

Is there an upper limit to offer definitive RT? Is it possible to have a PSA of 100-500 and still have only local disease?

What determines which you select first? How do concerns about cross-resistance factor in after progression on one of these agents?

To what extent do you worry about overlapping myelosuppression? Is there any advantage to overlapping therapy?

Standard RTOG constraints include guidelines for rectal v60, v65, v70, v75, but is there a relative or absolute volume constraint for rectal v80 that ...

Is there a role for salvage LN dissection or salvage RT to the node? And is there a role for systemic therapy (ADT or chemotherapy) in addition? If yo...

Should the workup change with the PSA level (for example, >2 vs <2 ng/ml post-op PSA)?  Is there a PSA level for which salvage radiotherapy...

Two retrospective studies from Stanford showed that patients who received ADT had an increased risk of dementia and Alzheimer's. Is this finding ...

Are patients with extracapsular extension at diagnosis good candidates for brachytherapy boost? If extracapsular disease that can't be effectively&nbs...

How do you minimize these risks? If using local anesthesia only in the outpatient setting, how is pain control at the area of injection?

Do you use a PSA threshold, PSA doubling time, or only evidence of metastatic disease to trigger ADT? For those without rapid doubling time, do you ev...

And how should we compare checkpoint inhibitors? Given the FDA approval of atezolizumab and nivolumab as second-line agents for metastatic urothe...

The Intergroup 0162 trial did not demonstrate noninferiority, although OS difference only 5.1 vs. 5.8 yrs.  Would pattern of spread affect your d...

Is there any benefit to delaying start of RT or perhaps changing to complete adrogen blockage if maximal PSA response is not achieved in 2 mo?   ...

If so, when? There seems to be an increasing trend among urologists to offer surgery to high-risk prostate cancer patients despite the low probability...

Are fiducials always necessary? Does your answer differ if you're treating with standard vs. moderate vs. extreme hypofractionation?

We are being referred more patients for salvage radiation after this procedure, not sure what the evidence is.

Specifically if sentinel node mapping and sampling has not been performed or refused?

When would you use surveillance versus repeat excision or adjuvant systemic or local therapy?

Do you have a cut off in terms of prostate size, IPSS score,  post-residual void volume, or any other criteria?

Do you perform a DRE at consultation and/or in follow up?  Do you feel that performing a DRE changes your management?

Do you prefer to treat patients with factors such as large prostate volume, significant comorbidities, anticoagulation use, history of TURP, or high A...

If so, is there a role for IMRT?  I was taught to use the RTOG style ports with whole pelvis 4 field box and then boost field to entire bladder ...

The CABOSUN trial showed a benefit in PFS and ORR, with unchanged OS, over sunitinib. 

In the recent 10 year update of the ARO (adjuvant pelvic RT versus observation) trial, their definition of PSA failure was 2 successive rise...

In the setting of recent craniotomy and a plan for SRS to the surgical cavity, which systemic therapy would you choose and when would you&nb...

How would you manage the small bowel/prostatic interface? Have you tried SpaceOAR in this context? SpaceOAR + protons? What dose would you escalate to...

For a patient with a history of non-muscle invasive disease in the bladder, presenting with a prostatic urethra only recurrence, do you approach this ...

When do you offer trimodality bladder-sparing approaches? Is there any role for starting standard neoadjuvant therapy in an attempt to convert to rese...

Or in patients with metastatic disease on ADT who have not had primary therapy? In what situations do you consider palliative prostatectomy?

After confirming castration levels of testosterone, is the next best step to add docetaxel (as in CHAARTED and STAMPEDE, although not explicitly for G...

When are you concerned for a false positive? FDA guidelines include a suggestion to try another assay in case heterophile antibodies are causing a fal...

Is it true that urinary obstruction can improve with HDR brachy, as it can have an ablative effect on the prostate?

Radium-223 has an overall survival benefit and lower hematologic toxicity, but at a significantly increased cost.  Does the cost-effectiveness fa...

If so, at what point? McDermott et al. demonstrated some lasting responses after discontinuation of therapy (JCO 2015), but these responses are s...

Would a minor adverse pathologic features such as capsular penetration (not SV or positive margins) influence the decision for radiation treatment? W...

How might a recent (within 6 months) myocardial infarction affect your recommendations?

For patients who developed oligometastases while off systemic treatment, do you start systemic therapy following local therapy or return to active sur...

Are there circumstances when you would choose IL-2 over checkpoint inhibitor trials or TKIs for fit patients? How should IL-2 be sequenced with these ...

In which circumstances should high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant be considered, versus second-line chemotherapy regimens or c...

Based on the abstract from IMvigor 210 presented at ASCO this year, are you offering atezo to patients who otherwise may not tolerate platinum-based c...

Based on a recent single-arm phase II trial, is there a role for paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP) as a first-line regimen instead of BEP?

There is limited data to guide us in this relatively uncommon situation (PMID 7853587, PMID 2836634). Would this presentation...

The mid treatment cystoscopy has been standard, but treating with or without mid-RT cystoscopy are both included in the NCCN guidelines. Can the treat...

Would a specific Gleason score, age, pathological feature, or PSA be an indication for covering the pelvic nodes? Would giving concurrent ADT affect y...

Given recent advancements in the understanding of biological differences in prostate cancer patients of African vs. other ancestry, does your manageme...

The forrest plot in the recent meta-analysis published in European Urology is rather impressive, even in the more recent high dose radiation series.&n...

For patients who remain fit and interested in treatment, but for whom a clinical trial is not an option, what systemic therapy do you reach for in thi...

Only the mCRPC population was included in the Fizazi et al. study, but the FDA approval is for prevention of skeletal related events from any solid tu...

Does PSADT play a factor in your decision-making? If so, how specifically?  I've tended to wait until the PSA is 10-15, re-image, and then begin...

Should it be routinely used for all patients? Or should it be used for specific risk groups such as unfavorable intermediate risk patients to rule out...

If so, how do you sequence this with other therapies?  In addition, in the absence of an effect on radiographic PFS or serum PSA, how do you asse...

In situations where there is a significant risk of either local or nodal persistence/recurrence post prostatectomy with a rising PSA, or nodal involve...

In the IMvigor 210 trial, increased PD-L1 expression in patients’ tumors was associated with response to atezolizumab, but some patients whose t...

Given the excellent results from the ASCENDE-RT trial, should we be combining EBRT and brachytherapy? What criteria do you use to determine when ...

A recent systematic review suggested that disease progression owing to a testosterone "flare" may not be a real phenomenon: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...

If a patient has only IR disease factors but "findings suspicious of extraprostatic extension" on biopsy or MRI or both, would this upstage the patien...

Since the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is well-defined in muscle-invasive bladder cancer, is it reasonable to consider this in upper-tract tumo...

The role of adjuvant docetaxel with ADT following RT for high risk disease has been previously elucidated by RTOG 0521.  Following prostatectomy,...

At the ASCO 2016 annual meeting, results of the PRINCE trial were reported. A strategy of intermittent docetaxel was found to be non-inferior to conti...

There are a wide range of seemingly safe/effective regimens in the published literature, with an associated array of BED/EQDs and little more to guide...

 In a patient with node positive disease, treated definitively with radiation, should continuous or intermittent ADT be administered? If a patien...

Typically radium-223 is reserved for men with symptomatic bone disease after failure of multiple other therapies.  Is there a population of men w...

Recently, Epstein et al proposed using a Grade Group system of Groups 1 (GS < 6), 2 (GS 3+4=7), 3 (GS 4+3=7), 4 (GS 4+4=8), and 5 (GS 9-10). T...

In this trial, 6 months of concurrent LHRH agonist therapy improved 5-year progression-free survival from 62% to 80%, with similar benefit in low-risk...

What can be done prior to RT to prevent this? (Flomax/hormones not helping)

Do you treat to full dose or a lower dose with a cone down to the prostate PTV? Is there any data to support a particular dose?

For a recurrence after nephrectomy, the NCCN recommends surgery or, in inoperable patients, systemic therapy. There is no mention of SBRT in...

In a man with castrate resistant disease invading into the bladder and rectum, I have been told that 30Gy/10 fractions to the prostate is inadequate, ...

Guidelines dont seem to account for this possibility. Could it just be normal prostate tissue growing back that is leading to PSA, why just assume it ...

What number of cores and what % cores involved do you look at to consider them low-intermediate risk for prostate SBRT?

In starting prostate SBRT at an instutution, what are issues with the treatment that one should pay special attention to?

Although the landmark randomized trials treated up to 64 Gy, there is data out of Italy suggesting that higher doses yield better biochemical control ...

On what other factors should be considered in making a treatment recommendation for salvage radiation therapy?

Do you favor a short palliative regimen, or a full course definitive treatment to 64.8Gy? How does your management change if the patient has a good pe...

What factors should be considered with offering SBRT to oligometastatic bone disease in prostate cancer patients? Should this been done off of a proto...

With ultra-sensitive PSA, it's unclear to me whether a doubling from 0.01 to 0.02 or 0.02 to 0.04 is significant. Is there a certain value that you wo...

If a patient is deemed high risk enough to require hormones with RT in the salvage setting, how long would you maintain them on ADT? Would you extrapo...

When counseling patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, what rates of impotence, incontinence, rectal toxicity, and urethral stricture shou...

Would a history of prior vasectomy in a stage IIA seminoma be an indication to include the inguinal nodes in the RT treatment field?

Is there any advantage to primary RT as opposed to just orchiectomy? Additionally, in order to confirm Tis, a biopsy is required, which is typica...

The optimal timing of post-prostatectomy RT in high-risk patients is debatable and currently the question of prospective randomized trials; however, g...

I've heard justification for treating the whole bladder to 60-64 Gy based on the UK MRC study (James et al. NEJM 2012 and Huddart et al. IJROBP 2013) ...

Realistically, there will always be some (hopefully small) inconsistency with bladder filling, and thus some small bowel could easily receive &ge...

Assuming a patient who could tolerate either, which is preferred? Does this depend on the choice for concurrent chemotherapy (5FU+mitomycin vs ci...

The Chung validation study did not find that size > 4cm or rete testis invasion are risk factors for relapse and the current NCCN guideline discour...

Specifically, for high grade T1 bladder cancer, is there evidence that definitive radiation yields similar control rates compared to cystectomy?

Do you use a particular cut-off? For example, someone in their 40's?

The patient has a positive bone scan (2 lesions), grade 4+5=9/10 prostate, and cancer cannot urinate without a catheter.

In the definitive setting, and would that change if cystecomy was planned if there was a complete response after CRT?  (similar to TCC paradigm).

Eight years after brachytherapy for a low risk prostate cancer, a patient has unresectable high grade squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Should I...

More specifically, which cardiac risk factors do you look for? Diabetes? Previous MI? Dyslipidemia? Peripheral vascular disease? CHF?

In general how do you counsel patients with high risk prostate cancer when choosing radiation verse prostatectomy? What numbers do you quote for ...

This is a patient who would have been an appropriate candidate for radiation upfront, but was managed with androgen deprivation therapy instead. On th...

Sometimes the scans don’t line up well because of differences in rectal and bladder fullness- any tips to optimize the fusion?

I ask this because I am seeing more and more patients who have had surgery despite presenting with high risk disease.

I know many do not treat the pelvis at all, but for those who do, what criteria do you use? Risk? Gleason? PSA? T stage?

I have a healthy 70+ year old man recently diagnosed with cT3N1M0 rectal adenoCA and GS 3+4=7 prostate cancer in 1/6 cores with a PSA of 25. Is ...

And should special precautions be taken (such as dose reduction, prophylactic symptom management, etc)?


Papers discussed in this category


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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2005 Sep 1

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International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2007-08-01

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2014-04-01

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CA Cancer J Clin, 2010 May-Jun

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JAMA, 2011-12-07

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Radiother Oncol, 2013-01-01

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Eur. Urol., 2009-05-01

The American journal of surgical pathology, 2005-09

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BMJ, 2014-01-08

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International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2012-02-01

Nature clinical practice. Oncology, 2005-05

Practical radiation oncology, 2012

Urology, 1999-10

Urology, 2001-04

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N. Engl. J. Med., 2009-06-11

JAMA, 2006-11-15

Practical radiation oncology, 2013

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The Journal of urology, 2011-09

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Practical radiation oncology, 2015

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The Lancet. Oncology, 2006-06

European urology, 2011-05

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2014-04-01

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Urologic oncology, 2014-04

BJU international, 2014-03

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J. Urol., 1998-01-01

Eur. Urol., 2014-03-01

BJU international, 2015-10

The New England journal of medicine, 2011-07-14

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 2010-04

JAMA, 2015

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The Journal of urology, 2012-01

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Radiother Oncol, 2006 Oct

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American journal of clinical oncology, 2014-06

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The New England journal of medicine, 2017-02-02

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